The Media and the Presidency


see also Biography and Memoirs

19th Century

20th century

Press Secretaries/ News Conferences

Presidential Campaigns and Debates

First Ladies

19th Century

Harper, Robert S. Lincoln and the Press.  New York: McGraw Hill, 1951.  

Harpine, William D.  From the Front Porch to the Front Page: McKinley and Bryan in the 1896 Presidential Campaign.  College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2005.

Kocher, Douglas J.  "Temporary Vilification: The Chicago Press and Chester Arthur, 1881." Journalism History 9:2 (Summer 1982): 53-55, 60.

Laracy, Mel.  “The Presidential Newspaper: The Forgotten Way of Going Public,” in Richard J. Ellis, ed.  Speaking to the People: The Rhetorical Presidency in Historical Perspective.   Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.  Pre-civil war

McKerns, Joseph P.  “Honest Rutherford Hayes Nurtured “Good Press.”  Media History Digest 13:1 (Spring-Summer 1993): 18-22.

Maihafer, Harry J. War of Words: Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War Press. Washington DC: Brassey's, 2001.

Simon, John Y.  “Grant: Hero Falters as Reluctant President: The 18th President and the Press.”  Media History Digest 12:1 (Spring-Summer 1992): 27-31, 42.

Streitmatter, Rodger.  "William W. Price: First White House Correspondent and Emblem of an Era." Journalism History 16 (1989): 32-41.

Tebbel, John, and Sara Miles Watts.  The Press and the Presidency from George Washington to Ronald Reagan.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

20th Century

Allen, Craig.  Eisenhower and the Mass Media: Peace, Prosperity, and Prime Time TV. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Baughman, James L. “There Were Two Gerald Fords: John Hersey and Richard Reeves Profile a President.” American Literary History 24 (Fall 2012): 444–467.

Benson, Thomas W.  Writing JFK: Presidential Rhetoric and the Press in the Bay of Pigs Crisis.  College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2004.

Berry, Joseph P.  John F. Kennedy and the Media: The First Television President.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1987.

Best, Gary Dean. The Critical Press and the New Deal: The Press Versus Presidential Power, 1933-1938.   Westport, Conn.: Prager, 1993.

Blair, John L.  "Coolidge the Image Maker: The President and the Press, 1923-1929."  The New England Quarterly 46:4 (December 1973): 499-522.

Bloom, Melvyn H.  Public Relations and Presidential Campaigns.  New York: Crowell, 1973.

Blum, John Morton.  Joe Tumulty and the Wilson Era.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.

Brace, Paul, and Barbara Hinckley.  Follow the Leader: Opinion Polls and the Modern Presidents.  New York: Basic Books, 1992.

Brayman, Harold.  The President Speaks Off the Record: Historic Evenings with America's Leaders, the Press, and other Men of Power at Washington's Exclusive Gridiron Club.  Princeton: Dow Jones Books, 1976.

Buckley, Kerry W.  “A President for the ‘Great Silent Majority’: Bruce Barton’s Construction of Calvin Coolidge.”  New England Quarterly  76 (Dec. 2003), 593­626.

Buhite, Russell D., and David W. Levy, eds.  FDR's Fireside Chats.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Bustema, John C.  and Kathleen A. Hansen.  "Presidential Endorsement Patterns By Chain-Owned Papers, 1976-84."  Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990):286-94.

Cannon, Lou.  President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.

Chase, Harold W., and Allen H. Lerman, eds.  Kennedy and the Press: The News Conferences.  New York: Crowell, 1965.

Cormier, Frank, James Deakin, and Helen Thomas.  The White House Press on the Presidency.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1983.

Cornwell, Elmer E., Jr.  “The Johnson Press Relations Style.”  Journalism Quarterly 43 (Spring 1966): 3-9.

Cox Han, Lori.  Governing from Center Stage: White House Communication Strategies during the Television Age of Politics.  Creskill, N.J.: Hampton Press, 2001.

Crouse, Timothy. The Boys on the Bus: Riding With the Campaign Press Corps. New York: Random House, 1973.

Culbert, David.  "Television's Nixon: The Politician and His Image," in John E. O'Connor, ed.  American History, American Television: Interpreting the Video Past.  New York: Frederick Ungar, 1983.

Culbert, David.  "Johnson and the Media." in Robert A. Divine, ed.  The Johnson Years, Volume 1.  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1987.

Daniel, Douglas K.  "They Liked Ike: Pro-Eisenhower Publishers and his Decision to Run for President."  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 77:2 (Summer 2000): 393-404.

Deakin, James.  Straight Stuff: The Reporters, the White House, and the Truth.  New York: Morrow, 1984.

Deaver, Michael K.  Different Drummer: My Thirty Years with Ronald Reagan.  New York: Harper Collins, 2001.

Donaldson, Gary A.  The First Modern Campaign: Kennedy, Nixon, and the Election of 1960.  Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

Donaldson, Sam.  Hold On, Mr. President.  New York: Random House, 1987.

Donovan, Hedley.  Roosevelt to Reagan: A Reporter's Encounters with Nine Presidents.  New York: Harper and Row, 1985.

Dunn, Arthur Wallace.  From Harrison to Harding: A Personal Narrative Covering a Third of a Century, 1888-1921.  Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1971.

Edwards, George.  The Public Presidency: The Pursuit of Popular Support.  New York: St. Martin's, 1993.

Eisinger, Robert M.  The Evolution of Presidential Polling.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Elias, Katherine J.  “A Mutually Beneficial Relationship: John F. Kennedy, Network Television News, and Foreign Crises, 1961–1963.”  PhD dissertation, Rutgers University, 2004. 

Ellis, Richard J., ed.  Speaking to the People: The Rhetorical Presidency in Historical Perspective.   Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.

Enriquez, Jonmikel.  "Theodore White and the Remaking of Political Journalism."  PhD dissertation, Georgetown University, 1998.

Evensen, Bruce J. "Following a Famous President: Truman's Troubles With an Independent Minded Press." American Journalism 12 (Summer 1995): 242-259.

Farrar, Ronald.  "Harry Truman and the Press: A View from the Inside."  Journalism History 8:2 (Summer 1981): 56-62, 70.

Feiffer, Jules.  “LBJ in Caricature.”  Harper’s  (February 1968): 48-52.

Feldstein, Mark.  "Fighting Quakers: The 1950s Battle Between Richard Nixon and Drew Pearson."  Journalism History 30:2 (Summer 2004): 76-90.

Ferrell, Robert H. ed.  Truman in the White House: The Diary of Eben A. Ayers.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1991. (asst. press secretary)

Foote, Joe S.  Television Access and Political Power: The Networks, the Presidency, and the Loyal Opposition.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1990.

Freda, Isabelle. “Screening Biopolitics: The Presidential Campaign Film and Cold War Aesthetics.”  PhD dissertation, New York University, 2009.

Frick, Daniel.  Reinventing Richard Nixon: A Cultural History of an American Obsession.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Gergen, David.  Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership from Nixon to Clinton.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Gilens, M., L. Vavrek, and M. Cohen. “The Mass Media and the Public’s Assessments of Presidential Candidates, 1952–2000.”  Journal of Politics 69 (November 2007): 1160–1175.

Gold, Vic.  PR as in President.  New York: Doubleday, 1977.

Graham, James T. "Kennedy, Cuba and the Press." Journalism History 24:2 (Spring 1998): 60-71.

Greenberg, Bradley S., and Edwin B. Parker, eds.  The Kennedy Assassination and the American Public.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965.

Grossman, Michael B., and Martha J. Kumar.  Portraying the President: The White House and the News Media.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.

Hart, Roderick P.  The Sound of Leadership: Presidential Communication in the Modern Age.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Hayden, Joseph.  Covering Clinton: The President and the Press in the 1990s.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.

Hayes, Joy Elizabeth.  “Did Herbert Hoover Deliver the First Fireside Chat?  Rethinking the Origins of Roosevelt’s Radio Genius.”  Journal of Radio Studies 7:1 (Spring 2000): 76-92.

Hertsgaard, Mark.  On Bended Knee: The Press and the Reagan Presidency. New York: FSG, 1988.

Hess, Stephen.  The Washington Reporters.  Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1981.

Hilderbrand, Robert C.  Power and the People: Executive Management of Public Opinion in Foreign Affairs, 1897-1921.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

Holli, Melvin G.  The Wizard of Washington: Emil Hurja, Franklin Roosevelt, and the Birth of Public Opinion Polling.  New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Hughes, William J.  "The Not-so-Genial Conspiracy:  The New York Times and Six Presidential 'Honeymoons."  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72 (Winter 1995): 841-850.

Isikoff, Michael.  Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter's Story.  New York: Crown, 1999.

Jeurgens, George.  News from the White House: The Presidential-Press Relationship in the Progressive Era.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Johnson, T. J.  "Exploring FDR's Relationship with the Press: A Historical Agenda Setting Study."  Political Communication 12:2 (April-June 1995): 157-172.

Jordan, Myron K. “Presidential Health Reporting: The Eisenhower Watershed.” American Journalism 4 (1987): 147–58.

Joynt Kumar, Martha.  Managing the President’s Message: The White House Communications Operation.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

Keogh, James.  President Nixon and the Press.  New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1972.

Kearns Goodwin, Doris.  The Bully Pulpit: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and the Golden Age of Journalism. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013.

Kern, Montague, Patricia Levering, and Ralph B. Levering.  The Kennedy Crises: The Press, the Presidency, and Foreign Policy.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.

Kiewe, Amos.  FDR’s First Fireside Chat: Public Confidence and the Banking Crisis. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2007.  

Klein, Herbert G.  Making it Perfectly Clear.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1980.  (Nixon)

Krock, Arthur.  "Mr. Kennedy's Management of the News." Fortune (March 1963): 82, 199-202.

Kyes, Elizabeth Anne.  “President Kennedy's Press Conferences as "Shapers" of the News.”  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1968.

Lang, Gladys E., and Kurt Lang.  The Battle for Public Opinion: The President, the Press, and the Polls During Watergate.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

Lee, Mordecai.  The First Presidential Communications Agency: FDR's Office of Government Reports.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005.

Levine, Lawrence W., and Cornelia R. Levine.  The Fireside Conversations: America Responds to FDR During the Great Depression.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Liebovich, Louis W.  The Press and the Modern Presidency: Myths and Mindsets from Kennedy to Clinton.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998.

Lloyd, Craig.  Aggressive Introvert: A Study of Herbert Hoover and Public Relations Management, 1912-1932.  Columbus: Ohio State University, 1972.

Ludlow, Louis.  From Cornfield to Press Gallery: Adventures and Reminiscences of a Veteran Washington Correspondent.  Washington DC: W.F. Roberts, 1924.

Mann, Robert.  Daisy Petals and Mushroom Clouds: LBJ, Barry Goldwater, and the Ad That Changed American Politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2011.

Minow, Newton N., John B. Martin, and Lee M. Mitchell.  Presidential Television.  New York: Basic Books, 1973.

Minow, Newton N., and Craig L. Lamay.  Inside the Presidential Debates: Their Improbable Past and Promising Future.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Mitchell, Franklin D.  Harry S. Truman and the News Media. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1998.

Moon, Gordon A.  "James Campbell Hagarty's Eight Years in the White House."  MA thesis, University of Washington, 1962.

Mueller, John E.  War, Presidents, and Public Opinion.  New York: Wiley, 1973.

Nacos, Brigitte L.  The Press, Presidents, and Crises.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.  (post-WWII)

Neeson, Ron.  It Sure Looks Different From the Inside.  New York: Playboy Press, 1978.  (Ford press aide)

Noonan, Peggy.  What I Saw at the Revolution: A Political Life in the Reagan Era.  New York: Random House, 1990.

Patterson, Thomas E.  Out of Order: How the Decline of Political Parties and the Growing Power of the New Media Undermine the American Way of Electing Presidents.  New York: Knopf, 1993.

Perry, Earnest.  "We Want In:  The African-American Press's Negotiation for a White House Correspondent."  American Journalism 20 (Summer 2003): 31-47.

Pollard, James E.  The Presidents and the Press.  New York: Macmillan, 1947.

Pollard, James E.  The Presidents and the Press: Truman to Johnson.  Washington DC: Public Affairs Press, 1964.

Ponder, Stephen.  "Presidential Publicity and Executive Power: Woodrow Wilson and the Centralization of Governmental Information."  American Journalism 11:3 (Summer 1994): 257-269.

Ponder, Stephen. “That Delightful Relationship: Presidents and White House Correspondents in the 1920s.” American Journalism 14 (1997): 164–81.

Ponder, Stephen.  Managing the Press: Origins of the Media Presidency, 1897-1933. New York: St. Martin's, 1999.

Porter, William E.  Assault on the Media: The Nixon Years.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976.

Powledge, Fred.  The Engineering of Restraint: The Nixon Administration and the Press.  Washington DC: Public Affairs Press, 1971.

Purvis, Hoyt, ed.  The Presidency and the Press.  Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976.

Reinsch, K. Leonard.  Getting Elected: From Radio and Roosevelt to Television and Reagan.  New York: Hippocrene, 1988.

Ritchie, Donald A.  Reporting From Washington: The History of the Washington Press Corps.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Ritter, Kurt, and David Henry.  Ronald Reagan: The Great Communicator.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992.

Rozell, Mark.  The Press and the Carter Presidency.  Boulder, CO: Westview, 1989.

Rozell, Mark  "President Carter and the Press: Perspectives from White House Communications Advisors."  Political Science Quarterly 105:3 (Fall 1990): 419-435.

Rozell, Mark.  The Press and the Ford Presidency.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.

Rozell, Mark.  "Carter Rehabilitated: What Caused the 39th President's Press Transformation."  Presidential Studies Quarterly 23:2 (Spring 1993): 317-330.

Rozell, Mark.  The Press and the Bush Presidency.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996.

Ritter, Kurt, and Martin J. Medhurts, eds.  Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond.  College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2003.

Rubin, Richard L.  Press, Party, and Presidency.  New York: W.W. Norton, 1981.

Sidey, Hugh.  John F. Kennedy, President: A Reporter's Inside Story.  New York: Atheneum, 1963.

Slaybaugh, Douglas.  “Adlai Stevenson, Television, and the Presidential Campaign of 1956.”  Illinois Historical Journal 89 (Spring 1996): 3-16.

Smoller, Fredric T.  The Six O'Clock Presidency: A Theory of Presidential Press Relations in the Age of Television.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1990.

Speakes, Larry.  Speaking Out: The Reagan Presidency from Inside the White House.  New York: Scribner, 1988.

Spear, Joseph C. Presidents and the Press: The Nixon Legacy.  Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984.

Startt, James D.  Woodrow Wilson and the Press: Prelude to the Presidency.  New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.

Stein, M.L.  When Presidents Meet the Press.  New York: Julian Messner, 1969.

Stempel, Guido N.  “The Prestige Press Covers the 1960 Presidential Campaign.”  Journalism Quarterly 38 (Spring 1961): 157-163.

Storm, Geoffrey.  “FDR and WGY: The Origins of the Fireside Chats.”  New York History 88 (Spring 2007): 177–197.

Summers, John H.  "What Happened to Sex Scandals?  Politics and Peccadilloes, Jefferson to Kennedy."  Journal of American History 87:3 (December 2000): 825-854.

Tebbel, John, and Sara Miles Watts.  The Press and the Presidency from George Washington to Ronald Reagan.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Thompson, Kenneth W., ed.  Ten Presidents and the Press.  Charlottesville: Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, 1983.

Thompson, Kenneth W.  The White House Press on the Presidency: News Management and Co-option.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1983.

Tootle, Stephen Keith.  “Political Pundits, Conventional Wisdom, and Presidential Reputation.”  Phd dissertation, Ohio University, 2004.

Tudda, Chris.  The Truth Is Our Weapon: The Rhetorical Diplomacy of Dwight D. Eisenhower and John Foster Dulles. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

Tulis, Jeffery K.  The Rhetorical Presidency.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Turner, Kathleen J. Lyndon Johnson’s Dual War: Vietnam and the Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. 

Whitaker, Wayne Richard.  "Warren Harding and the Press."  PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 1972.

White, Graham J.  FDR and the Press.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

Williams, Herbert Lee.  The Newspaperman's President: Harry S. Truman.  New York: Nelson-Hall, 1984.

Winfield, Betty H.  "The New Deal Publicity Operation: Foundation for the Modern Presidency." Journalism Quarterly 61 (1984): 40-48, 218.

Winfield, Betty H.  FDR and the News Media, revised editionNew York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Wolfson, Lewis W., and James McCartney.  The Press Covers Government: The Nixon Years from 1969 to Watergate.  Washington DC: American University for the National Press Club.

Wolvin, Andrew D.  "The Blue Eagle Campaign: A Study in Persuasion and Coercion."  Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1968.

Press Secretaries/ News Conferences

Anderson, Patrick.  The President's Men.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1968.  (presidential aides, including press secretaries and speechwriters)

Beldon, Thomas M.  “Presidential Press Conferences as Richard Nixon Used Them.”  MA thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1974.

Carpenter, Liz.  Ruffles and Flourishes.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1970.  (Lady Bird Johnson press secretary)

Casserly, John J.  The Ford White House: The Diary of a Speechwriter.  Boulder: Colorado University Press, 1977.

Cooper, Stephen L.  “A Rhetorical Assessment of Lyndon Johnson's Presidential Press Conference.”  PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1972.

Cornwell, Jr., Elmer E.  “The Presidential Press Conference.” Midwest Journal of Political Science 4 (November 1960): 370-389.

Ferrell, Robert H., ed.  The Talkative President: The Off-the-Record Press Conferences of Calvin Coolidge.  New York: Garland, 1979.

French, Blaire Atherton.  The Presidential News Conference: Its History and Role in the American Political System.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1982.

Johnson, George W.  The Kennedy Presidential Press Conferences.  New York: Earl Coleman, 1978.

Johnson, George W.  The Nixon Presidential Press Conferences.  New York: Earl Coleman, 1978.

Johnson, George W.  The Johnson Presidential Press Conferences.  2 vols. New York: Earl Coleman, 1978.

Levin, Linda Lotridge.  The Making of FDR: The Story of Stephen T. Early, America’s First Modern Press Secretary.  Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus, 2008.

McGuire, Delbert.  “Democracy’s Confrontation: The Presidential Press Conference- I.”  Journalism Quarterly 44 (1967): 63-644.

McGuire, Delbert.  “Democracy’s Confrontation: The Presidential Press Conference- II.”  Journalism Quarterly 45 (1968): 31-41.

Magyar, Linda Feinfeld.  “ The Evolution of Presidential Press Secretaries.”  Media History Digest 5:2 (Spring 1985): 2-9.

Nelson, W. Dale.  Who Speaks for the President?  The White House Press Secretary from Cleveland to Clinton.  Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1998.

Pollard, James E.  “The White House News Conference as a Channel of Communication.”  Public Opinion Quarterly 15:4 (Winter 1951-52): 663-678.

Powell, Jody, George Reedy, and Jerry terHorst.  Three Press Secretaries on the Presidency and the Press.  Ed. Kenneth W. Thompson.  Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1983.

Reedy, George E.  Lyndon Johnson, A Memoir.  New York: Andrews McMeel, 1982. (LBJ press secretary)

Salinger, Pierre. With Kennedy.  Garden City: Doubleday, 1966.  (JFK Press secretary)

Schoenherr, Steven E.  "Selling the New Deal: Stephen T. Early's Role as Press Secretary to Franklin D. Roosevelt."  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Delaware, 1976.

Sharp, Henry Wall.  "The Kennedy News Conferences."  PhD dissertation, Purdue University, 1967.

Smith, Carolyn.  Presidential Press Conferences: A Critical Approach.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1990.

Spragans, William C., and Carol Ann Terwood.  From Spokesman to Press Secretary: White House Media Operations.  Washington DC: University Press of America, 1980.

Utegaard, Rolf William.  “Pierre Salinger's Thousand Days.”  MA thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1967.


Presidential Campaigns/ Debates

Baughman, James L.  "Enlightened Pauses, Partial Withdrawals: American Historians and the Study of Presidential Campaigns."  Mass Communication Review 14:1/2 (1987): 20-29.

Berkman, Dave.  "Politics and Radio in the 1924 Campaign."  Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987): 422-28. 

Falk, Erika.  Women for President: Media Bias in Eight Campaigns.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Freda, Isabelle. “Screening Biopolitics: The Presidential Campaign Film and Cold War Aesthetics.”  PhD dissertation, New York University, 2009.

Hofstetter, C. Richard.  "News Bias in the 1972 Campaign: A Cross-Media Comparison."  Journalism Monographs 58 (November 1978).

Holitz, John E.  "Eisenhower and the Admen: The Television Spot Campaign of 1952." Wisconsin Magazine of History 66 (1982): 25-39.

Kraus, Sidney.  The Great Debates: Background, Perspective, and Effects.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1962.

Kreger, Donald S.  "Press Opinion in the Eagleton Affair."  Journalism Monographs 35 (August 1974).

McGuinness, Joe.  The Selling of the President, 1968.  New York: Trident Press, 1969.

Morello, John A.  Selling the President, 1920: Albert D. Lasker, Advertising, and the Election of Warren G. Harding.  Westport, Conn.: Prager, 2001.

Paletz, David L. “Delegates’ Views of TV Coverage of the 1968 Democratic Convention.”  Journal of Broadcasting. 16:4 (1972): 441-451.

Salant, Richard S.  “The Television Debates: A Revolution That Deserves a Future.”  Public Opinion Quarterly 26:3 (Autumn 1962): 335-350.


First Ladies

Beasley, Maureen H.  First Ladies and the Press: The Unfinished Partnership of the Media Age.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2005.  

Burns, Lisa M. “First Ladies as Political Women: Press Framing of Presidential Wives, 1900–2001.” PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2004.