Alternative and Minority Media [index]
Aiello, Thomas. “The Shot That Was Heard in Nearly Two Million Negro Homes: The 1934 Murder of William Alexander Scott.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 100:4 (2016): 366-403.
Alexander, Ann F. "Black Protest in the New South: John Mitchell, Jr. (1863-1929) & the Richmond Planet," PhD dissertation, Duke University, 1973.
Alexander, Shawn Leigh. "Marcus Garvey and the Chicago Defender, 1917-1923." PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1995.
Alexander, Shawn Leigh, ed. T. Thomas Fortune, the Afro-American Agitator: A Collection of Writings, 1880–1928. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008.
Alkebulan, Paul. The African-American Press in World War II: Toward Victory at Home and Abroad. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014. Add to minority
Anderson, Daniel Roger. “Renaissance Men: The Harlem Intelligentsia, the African–American Press, and the Culture of Sport, 1918–1940.” PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2005.
Bacon, Jacqueline. "The History of Freedom's Journal: A Study in Empowerment and Community." Journal of African American History 88 (Spring 2003): 163-181.
Bacon, Jacqueline. Freedom’s Journal: The First African
American Newspaper. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2007.
Bacon, Jacqueline. “‘Acting as Freemen’: Rhetoric, Race, and Reform in the Debate over Colonization in Freedom’s Journal, 1827–1828.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 93 (February 2007): 58–83.
Bailey, Julius H. Race Patriotism: Protest and Print Culture in the AME Church. Knoxville: University Press of Tennessee, 2012.
Baldasty, Gerald J., and Mark E. LaPoint. "The Press and the African-American Community: The Role of the Northwest Enterprise in the 1930s." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 94 (Winter 2002-2003): 14-26.
Banner-Haley, Charles Pete. "The Philadelphia Tribune and the Persistence of Black Republicanism During the Great Depression." Pennsylvania History 65:2 (Spring 1998): 190-202.
Baum, Bruce, and Duchess Harris, eds. Racially Writing the Republic: Racists, Race Rebels, and Transformations of American Identity. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.
Beard, Richard L., and Cyril E. Zoerner. “Associated Negro Press: Its Founding, Ascendency, and Demise.” Journalism Quarterly 46 (Spring 1969): 47-52.
Bederman, Gail. "Civilization,' the Decline of Middle-Class Manliness, and Ida B. Wells's Antilynching Campaign (1892-94). Radical History Review 52 (1992): 5-30.
Beito, David T., and Linda Royster Beito. “Selling Laissez-faire Antiracism to the Black Masses: Rose Wilder Lane and the Pittsburgh Courier.” Independent Review 15:2 (Fall 2010): 279-294.
Berardi, Gayle K., ad Thomas W. Segady. "The Development of African American Newspapers in the American West: A Sociohistorical Perspective." Journal of Negro History 75 (Summer/Fall 1990): 96-111.
Berardi, Gayle, and Thomas W. Segady. "Community Identification and Cultural Formation: The Role of African American Newspapers in the American West, 1880-1914." Briot 10:1 (Spring 1991): 13-19.
Blain, Keisha N. “We Want to Set the World on Fire: Black Nationalist Women and Diasporic Politics in the New Negro World, 1940-1944.” Journal of Social History 49:1 (Fall 2015): 194-212.
Blocker, Jr., Jack S. "Building Networks: Cooperation and Communication Among African Americans in the Urban Midwest, 1860-1910." Indiana Magazine of History 99:4 (December 2003): 370-386.
Bowie, Rian Elizabeth. “Is There
a Woman in the Text? The Black Press and the Emergence of Organized Black
Womanhood, 1827–1900.” PhD dissertation,
Emory University, 2007.
Boyd, Melba Joyce. Wrestling
with the Muse: Dudley Randall and the Broadside Press. New York: Columbia University Press,
Boyd, Melba Joyce. Wrestling with the Muse: Dudley Randall and the Broadside Press. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Brooks, Maxwell R. The Negro Press Re-Examined: Political Content of Leading Negro Newspapers (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1959).
Broussard, Jinx Coleman. Giving Voice to the Voiceless: Four Pioneering Black Women Journalists. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Broussard, Jinx Coleman. “Exhortation to Action: The Writings of Amy Jacques Garvey, Journalist and Black Nationalist.” Journalism History 32:2 (Summer 2006): 87-95.
Brown, Karen F. "The Black Press of Tennessee: 1865-1980." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, 1982.
Brown, Kory B. “Souled Out: Ebony Magazine in an Age of Black Power, 1965-1975.” PhD dissertation, Howard University, 2010.
Bullock, Penelope. The African-American Periodical Press, 1838-1909. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.
Burroughs, Todd S. "Drums in the Global Village: Toward an Ideological History of Black Media." PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, 2001.
Burrowes, Carl Patrick. "Who Killed the Negro World?: An Investigation into the Death of a Dissident Newspaper." Journal of Ethnic Studies, 9 (1981), 1-12.
Burrowes, Carl Patrick. "In Common with Colored Men, I Have Certain Sentiments: Black Nationalism and Hilary Teage of the Liberia Herald." American Journalism 16:3 (1999): 17-35.
Burrowes, Carl Patrick. “Caught in the Crosswinds of the Atlantic: John Brown Russwurm, Freedom’s Journal, and African Colonization. Journalism History 37: 3 (Fall 2011): 130-141.
Byers, Stephen Robert. "Diverse Community, Diverse Newspapers: How Milwaukee's Black Press Reflected its Diversity, 1968-2002." PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2004.
Carlisle, Anthony Todd. “The Black Press and the Shaping of Protest in African American Literature, 1840–1935.” PhD dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009.
Carroll, Brian. "When to Stop Cheering? The Black Press, the Black Community, and the Integration of Professional Baseball." PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2003.
Carroll, Brian. The Black Press and Black Baseball, 1915-1955: A Devil’s Bargain. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2015.
Carter, Julette B. "The Role of the Black Press in the 1923 Trial of Marcus Mosiah Garvey." American Journalism 14:2 (1997): 131-47.
Castro, Cristian. “White Paper, Black Ink: The Black Press of Sao Paulo and Chicago, 1900–1950.” PhD dissertation, University of California, Davis, 2013.
Chapman, Erin D. Prove it on Me: New Negroes, Sex, and Popular Culture in the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Chase, Hal. "Honey for Friends, Stings for Enemies': William Calvin Chase and The Washington Bee, 1882-1921." PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1973.
Clark, Naeemah, ed. African Americans in the History of Mass Communication: A Reader. New York: Peter Lang, 2014.
Clark, Tanya N. "Quilting the Race: Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, the Colored American Magazine, & the African American Family, 1900-1905." PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2004.
Clark, William E. "A Pioneer Negro Newspaper: The New York Age." Southern Workman 52 (January 1923): 16-20.
Cohen, Lara L., and Jordan Alexander Stein, eds. Early African American Print Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.
Cooper, Caryl A. “The Chicago Defender: Filling in the Gaps for the Office of Civilian Defense, 1941-1945.” Western Journal of Black Studies 23:1 (1999): 111-118.
Cooper, Caryl. “Selling Negro Women to Negro Women and the World: Rebecca Stiles Taylor and the Chicago Defender, 1939-1945.” Journalism History 39:4 (Winter 2014): 241-249.
Cronin, Mary M. "A Chance to Build for Our Selves: Black Press Boosterism in Oklahoma, 1891-1915." Journalism History 26:2 (Spring 2000): 71-80.
Cronin, Mary M. "Mixing Protest and Accommodation: The Response of Oklahoma's Black Town Newspaper Editors to Race Relations, 1891-1918." American Journalism 19:2 (Spring 2002): 45-64.
Cronin, Mary M. “C.F. Richardson and the Houston Informer’s Fight for Racial Equality in the 1920s.” American Journalism 23:3 (Summer 2006): 79-103.
Crowder, Ralph L. "Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and John Edward Bruce: The Relationship of a Militant Black Journalist with the 'Father of Civil of Rights' and the 'Wizard of Tuskegee'." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 22:2 (July 1998): 91-110.
Daniel, Walter. Black Journals of the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Daniel, Walter C., and Patrick J. Huber. "The Voice of the Negro and the Atlanta Riot of 1906: A Problem in Freedom of the Press." Journalism History 17:1-2 (Spring-Summer 1990): 23-28.
Dann, Martin E. ed., The Black Press, 1827-1890: The Quest for National Unity. New York: Putnam, 1971.
Davis, Henry Vance. "The Black Press: From Mission to Commercialization, 1827-1927." PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990.
Dawkins, Wayne. Black Journalists: The NABJ Story. Sicklerville, NJ: August Press, 1993. (National Association of Black Journalists)
Dawkins, Wayne. Rugged Waters: Black Journalists Swim the Mainstream. Sicklerville, NJ: August Press, 2003.
DeSantis, Alan Douglas. "Selling the American Dream: The Chicago Defender and the Great Migration of 1915-1919." PhD dissertation, University of Indiana, 1993.
DeSantis, Alan D. "A Forgotten Leader: Robert S. Abbott and the Chicago Defender from 1910-1920." Journalism History 23:2 (Spring 1997): 63-71.
Detweiler, Frederick. The Negro Press in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1922.
Digby-Junger, Richard. "The Guardian, Crisis, Messenger, and Negro World: The Early-20th-Century Black Radical Press." Howard Journal of Communications 9:3 (July 1998): 263-282.
Dillon, Merton L. Benjamin Lundy and the Struggle for Negro Freedom. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1966.
Dolan, Mark K. “Dave Peyton, the Chicago Defender, and Local 208.” Journal of Illinois History 11 (Autumn 2008): 154–148.
Domke, David. "The Black Press in the 'Nadir' of African Americans." Journalism History 20:3-4 (1994):131-138.
Drake, Donald E., II, "Militancy in Fortune's New York Age." Journal of Negro History 55:4 (1970): 307-322.
Ellis, Mark. “America’s Black Press, 1914-1918.” History Today 41 (September 1991): 20-27.
Ellis, Charlesetta M. "Robert S. Abbott's Response to Education for African-Americans via the Chicago Defender, 1909-1940." PhD dissertation, Loyola University, 1994.
Enszer, Julie R. “Fighting to Create and Maintain Our Own Black Women’s Culture: Conditions Magazine, 1977-1990. American Periodicals 25:2 (2015): 160-176.
Fagan, Benjamin P. The Black Newspaper and the Chosen Nation. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2016.
Farrar, Hayward. The Baltimore Afro-American. 1892-1950. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Fee, Frank E., Jr. "Intelligent Union of Black and White: Frederick Douglass and the Rochester Press, 1847-48." Journalism History 31:1 (Spring 2005): 34-45.
Finkle, Lee. Forum for Protest: The Black Press During World War II. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1975.
Fishkin, Shelley Fisher, and Carla L.
Peterson. “We Holds These Truths to be
Self-Evident: The Rhetoric of Frederick Douglass’s Journalism.” In Frederick Douglass: New Literary and
Historical Essays, Eric Sundquist,ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Fleener, Nickieann. "Breaking Down Buyer Resistance: Marketing the 1935 Pittsburgh Courier to Mississippi Blacks." Journalism History 13:3/4 (Autumn/Winter 1986): 78-85.
Forss, Amy Helene. Black Print With a White Carnation: Mildred Brown and the Omaha Star Newspaper, 1938-1989. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014.
Foster, Frances Smith. “Genealogies of Our Concerns, Early (African) American Print Culture, and Transcending Tough Times.” American Literary History 22 (Summer 2010): 368–380.
Foster Greene, Debra. "Published in the Interest of Colored People: The St. Louis Argus Newspaper in the 20th Century." PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 2003.
Franklin, Vincent P. "The Voice of the Black Community: The Philadelphia Tribune, 1912-1941." Pennsylvania History 51:4 (October 1984): 261-284.
Frisken, Amanda K. “A Song Without Words: Anti-Lynching Imagery in the African-American Press, 1889-1898.” Journal of African-American History 97:3 (Summer 2012): 240-269.
Fultz, Michael. "'The Morning Cometh': African-American Periodicals, Education, and the Black Middle Class, 1900-1930." Journal of Negro History 80:3 (Summer 1995): 97-112.
Gallon, Kim T. “Between Respectability and Modernity: Black Newspapers and Sexuality, 1925–1940.” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2009.
Gallon, Kim. “Silences Kept: The Absence of Gender and Sexuality in Black Press Historiography.” History Compass 10:2 (February 2012): 207-218.
Gardner, Eric. Black Print Unbound: The Christian Recorder, African American Literature, and Periodical Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Gershenhorn, Jerry. “Double V in North Carolina: The Carolina Times and the Struggle of Racial Equality during World War II.” Journalism History 32:3 (Fall 2006): 156-167.
Gershenhorn, Jerry. “A Courageous Voice for Black Freedom: Louis Austin and the Carolina Times in Depression-Era North Carolina.” North Carolina Historical Review 87 (January 2010): 57–92.
Glick, Josh. “Mixed Messages: D. W. Griffith and the Black Press, 1916-1931.” Film History 23 (2011): 174-195.
Goeser, Caroline. Picturing the New Negro: Harlem Renaissance Print Culture and Modern Black Identity. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2006.
Gordon, Eugene. "The Negro Press." Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 140 (November 1928): 248-256.
Grose, Charles W. "Black Newspapers in Texas, 1868-1970." MA thesis, University of Texas, 1972.
Grossman, James R. "Blowing the Trumpet: The Chicago Defender and Black Migration During World War I." Illinois Historical Journal 78:2 (Summer 1985): 82-96.
Green, Adam. Selling the Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Guthrie, Ricardo Antonio. “Examining Political Narratives of the Black Press in the West: Dr. Carlton B. Goodlet and the San Francisco Sun-Reporter (1950s–1960s).” PhD dissertation, University of California- San Diego, 2006.
Guven, Erdem. “The Image and the Perception of the Turk in Freedom’s Journal,” Journalism History 41:4 (Winter 2016): 191-199.
Hall, Calvin L. African-American Journalists: Autobiography and Memoir and Manifesto. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2009.
Hall, Nora D. "On Being an African-American Woman: Gender and Race in the Writings of Six Black Women Journalists, 1894-1936." PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1998.
Haram, Kerstyn M. “The Palmetto Leader’s Mission to End Lynching in South Carolina: Black Agency and the Black Press in Columbia, 1925–1940.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 107 (October 2006): 310–33.
Heitner, Devorah. Black Power TV. Durham: Duke University Press, 2013.
Hellwig, David J. "The Afro-American Press and US Involvement in Cuba, 1902-1912." Mid-American 72 (April/July 1990): 135-145.
Hirsch, Paul M. “An Analysis of Ebony: The Magazine and Its Readers.” Journalism Quarterly 45 (Summer 1968): 261-270.
Hodges, Graham Russell Gao, David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.
Hogan, Lawrence D. A Black National News Service: The Associated Negro Press and Claude Barnett, 1915-1945. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1983.
Horne, Gerald. The Rise and Fall of the Associated Negro Press: Claude Barnett’s Pan-African News and the Jim Crow Paradox. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2017.
Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton. In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community, and Protest Among Northern Free Blacks, 1800-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Howard-Pitney, David. "Calvin Chase's Washington Bee and Black Middle-Class Ideology, 1882-1900." Journalism Quarterly 63 (1986): 89-97.
Howard-Pitney, David. "The Enduring Black Jeremiad: The American Jeremiad and Black Protest Rhetoric from Frederick Douglass to W.E.B. DuBois, 1841-1919." American Quarterly 38 (1986): 481-192.
Huddle, Mark A., Ed. Roi Ottley’s World War II: the Lost Diary of an African American Journalist. (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2011)
Hughes, Langston. Langston Hughes and the Chicago Defender: Essays on Race, Politics, and Culture 1942-1962. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.
Hutton, Frankie. "Social Morality in the Antebellum Black Press." Journal of Popular Culture 26 (Fall 1992): 71-84.
Hutton, Frankie. The Early Black Press in America, 1827-1860. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.
Hyman, Mark J. "Afrocentric Leanings of Black Church Owned Newspapers from Mid-Nineteenth Century to World War I." PhD dissertation, Temple University, 1991.
Jackson, Debra. "A Cultural Stronghold: The Anglo-African Newspaper and the Black Community of New York." New York History 85 (Fall 2004): 331-357.
Jacobs, Donald M., ed. Antebellum Black Newspapers. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976. (Indices to Freedom's Journal, The Weekly Advocate, and The Rights of All)
James, Winston. The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799-1851. New York: New York University Press, 2010.
Jin-Ping, Wu. Frederick Douglass and the Black Liberation Movement: The North Star of American Blacks. New York: Garland, 2000.
Johnson, Abby A., and Ronald M. Johnson. "Away from Accommodation: Radical Editors and Protest Journalism, 1900-1910." Journal of Negro History 62:4 (October 1977): 325-338.
Johnson, Abby Arthur, and Ronald M. Johnson. Propaganda and Aesthetics: The Literary Politics of Afro-American Magazines in the 20th Century. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1991.
Johnson, Charles S. "The Rise of the Negro Magazine." Journal of Negro History 13 (January 1928): 7-21.
Johnson, James Wesley. "The Associated Negro Press: A Medium of International News and Information, 1919-1967." PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1976.
Jones, Allen W. "The Black Press and the New South: Jesse C. Duke's Struggle for Justice and Equality." Journal of Negro History 64 (1979): 221-225.
Jones Ross, Felicia G. "Preserving the Community: Cleveland Black Papers' Response to the Great Migration." Journalism Quarterly 71:3 (Autumn 1994): 531-539.
Jones, Felecia G., and Joseph P. McKerns. "Depression in the Promised Land: The Chicago Defender Discourages Migration, 1929-1940." American Journalism 21:1 (Winter 2004): 55-73.
Jones Ross, Felicia. “The Cleveland Call and Post and the
Election of Carl B. Stokes.” Journalism
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Jordan, William G. Black Newspapers and America's War For Democracy, 1914-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Kessler, Lauren. The Dissident Press: Alternative Journalism in American History. Beverley Hills: Sage Publications, 1984.
Kirschke, Amy Helene, and Phillip Luke Sinitiere, eds. Protest and Propaganda: W.E.B. Du Bois, the Crisis, and American History. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2014.
Kiuchi, Yuya. Struggles for Equal Voice: The History of African American Media Democracy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2012.
Klassen, Terasa C., and Owen V. Johnson. "Sharpening of the Blade: Black Consciousness in Kansas, 1892-97." Journalism Quarterly 63 (Summer 1986): 298-304.
Kornweibel, Theodore. No Crystal Stair: Black Life and The Messenger. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1975.
Kornweibel, Theodore, Jr. "The Most Dangerous of all Negro Journals: Federal Efforts to Suppress the Chicago Defender During World War I." American Journalism 11:2 (Spring 1994): 257-269.
Kreiling, Albert. "The Making of Racial Identities in the Black Press: A Cultural Analysis of Race Journalism in Chicago, 1878-1928." PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1973.
Lemons, J. Stanley and Diane Lambert. “John Carpenter Minkins: Pioneering African-American Newspaperman.” New England Quarterly 76:3 (2003): 413-438.
Long, Mia Chandra. “Seeking a Place in the Sun: Sepia Magazine’s Endeavor for Quality Journalism and Place in the Negro Market, 1951–1982.” PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2011.
McCluskey, Audrey T. "Representing the Race: Mary McLeod Bethune and the Press in the Jim Crow Era." Western Journal of Black Studies 23:4 (Winter 1999): 236-245.
McGhee, Flora A. C. "Mississippi Black Newspapers: Their History, Content, and Future." PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1985.
McKivigan, John R. “Stalwart Douglass: Life and Times as Political Manifesto.” Journal of African American History 99 (Winter–Spring 2014): 46–55.
McMillen, Neil R. "Black Journalism in Mississippi: The Jim Crow Years." Journal of Mississippi History 49:2 (May 1987): 129-138.
Mace, Darryl. In Remembrance of Emmett Till: Regional Stories and Media Responses to the Black Freedom Struggle. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2014.
Magliulo, Myrna Colette. “Andrew J. Smitherman: A Pioneer of the African American Press, 1909–1961.” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 34 (July 2010): 119–153.
Mangun, Kimberley. “Boosting the Bottom Line: Beatrice Morrow Cannady’s Tactics to Promote The Advocate, 1923-1933.” American Journalism 25:3 (Summer 2008): 31-69.
“Editor A.D. Griffin:
Envisioning a New Age for Black Oregonians (1896-1907).” American Journalism 26:3 (Summer 2009): 55-92.
Marks, George P., ed. The Black Press Views American Imperialism (1898-1900). New York: Arno Press, 1971.
Matthews, John M. “Black Newspapermen and the Black Community in Georgia, 1890-1930.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 68 (Fall 1984): 356-381.
Meier, August. "Booker T. Washington and the Negro Press: With Special Reference to the Colored American Magazine." Journal of Negro History 38 (January 1953): 67-90.
Michaeli, Ethan. The Defender: How the Legendary Black Newspaper Changed America from the Age of the Pullman Porters to the Age of Obama. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016.
Mikel, Daniel P. "A History of Negro Newspapers in Minnesota, 1876-1963." M.Ed., Macalester College, 1963.
Mindich, David T.Z. "Understanding Frederick Douglass: Toward a New Synthesis Approach to the Birth of Modern American Journalism." Journalism History 26:1 (Winter 2000): 15-22.
Mitchell, Patricia Pugh. "Negating the Nadir: 'The Smoky City' Newspaper Series as a Forum for Black Perspectives." Western Pennsylvania History 89 (Winter 2006-2007): 32-47.
Morris, Burnis R. Carter G. Woodson: History, the Black Press, and Public Relations. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2017.
Muhammad, Baiyina W. "'What is Africa to Us'? The Baltimore Afro American's Coverage of the African Diaspora, 1915-1941." PhD dissertation, Morgan State University, 2004.
Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma. New York: Harper and Row, 1944. pp. 908-924 on the black press
Neal, Diane. "Seduction, Accommodation, or Realism? Tabbs Gross and the Arkansas Freeman." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 48 (Spring 1989): 57-64.
Newman, Richard, Patrick Rael, and Phillip Lapsansky, eds. Pamphlets of Protest: An Anthology of Early African-American Protest Literature, 1790-1860. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Newman, Richard. "Protest in Black and White: The Formation and Transformation of an African American Political Community During the Early Republic," in Jeffrey L. Pasley, Andrew W. Robertson, and David Waldstreicher, eds. Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Page, Yolanda Williams, ed. Encyclopedia of African American Women Writers. 2 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007.
Paz, Dennis G. "John Albert Williams and Black Journalism in Omaha, 1895-1929." Midwest Review 10 (Spring 1988): 14-32.
Peeples, Matthew. “Creating Political Authority: The Role of the Antebellum Black Press in the Political Mobilization and Empowerment of African-Americans.” Journalism History 34:2 (Summer 2008): 76-86.
Perry, Earnest Lee, Jr. "Voice of Consciousness: The Negro Newspaper Publishers Association During World War II." PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1998.
Perry, Earnest L., Jr. "A Common Purpose: The Negro Newspaper Publishers Association's Fight for Equality During World War II." American Journalism 19 (Spring 2002): 31-43.
Perry, Earnest. "We Want In: The
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Perry, Earnest. "We Want In: The African-American Press's Negotiation for a White House Correspondent." American Journalism 20 (Summer 2003): 31-47.
Pinnick, Timothy N. Finding and Using African-American Newspapers. Wyandotte, OK: Gregath Publishing, 2008.
Pride, Armistad S. A Register and History of Negro Newspapers in the United States, 1827-1950. Ann Arbor: University Microfilm, 1979.
Pride, Armistad S. and Clint C. Wilson. A History of the Black Press. Washington DC: Howard University Press, 1997.
Rathbun, Betty Lou K. "The Rise of the Modern American Negro Press, 1880-1914." PhD dissertation, State University of New York-Buffalo, 1979.
Reisler, Jim. Black Writers- Black Baseball: An Anthology of Articles from Black Sportswriters who Covered the Negro Leagues. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994.
Rhodes, Jane. "Race, Money, Politics and the Antebellum Black Press." Journalism History 20:3-4 (1994):95-106.
Rhodes, Jane. Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
Rooks, Noliwe M. Ladies' Pages: African American Women's Magazines and the Culture that Made Them. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2004.
Ross, Felicia Jones. "The Cleveland Call and Post and the New Deal: A Change in African-American Thought." Journalism History 19:3 (Autumn 1993):87-92 .
Ross, Felicia Jones. "Preserving the Community: Cleveland Black Papers' Response to the Great Migration." Journalism Quarterly 71:3 (Fall 1994): 531-539.
Ross, Felicia Jones. "Fragile Equality: A Black Paper's Portrayal of Race Relations in late 19th Century Cleveland." Howard Journal of Communications 6: 1/2 (October 1995): 53-68.
Ross, Felicia Jones. "The Brownsville Affair and the Political Values of Cleveland's Black Newspapers." American Journalism 12:2 (1995): 107-22.
Sarr, Amanda. Black Arkansas Newspapers,
1869-1975: A Check List. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press,
Savage, Barbara Diane. Broadcasting Freedom: Radio, War and the Politics of Race, 1939-1948. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Schechter, Patricia A. Ida B. Well-Barnett and American Reform, 1880-1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Sealander, Judith. “Antebellum Black Press Images of Women.” Western Journal of Black Studies 6 (Fall 1982): 159-165.
Shelton, Vanessa. “Interpretive
Community and the Black Press: Racial Equality and Politics in The St. Louis American and The St. Louis
Argus, 1928–1956.” PhD dissertation,
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Sklaroff, Lauren Rebecca. Black Culture and the New Deal: The Quest for Civil Rights in the Roosevelt Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
Slagle, Mark. “Mightier Than the Sword? The Black Press and the End of Racial Segregation in the U.S. Military, 1948–1954.” PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2010.
Snorgrass, J. William. "The Baltimore Afro-American and the Election Campaigns of FDR." American Journalism 1:2 (1984): 35-50.
Snorgrass, J. William. "The Black Press and Political Alliances: The Turning Point, 1928." Western Journal of Black Studies 10:3 (Fall 1986): 103-108
Stevens, John D. "The Black Press and the 1936 Olympics." American Journalism 14:1 (1997): 97-102.
Stevens, Summer E., and Owen V. Johnson. "From Black Politics to Black Community: Harry C. Smith and the Cleveland Gazette." Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990): 1090-1102.
Stovall, Mary E. "The Chicago Defender in the Progressive Era." Illinois Historical Journal 83:3 (Autumn 1990): 159-172.
Streitmatter, Rodger. Raising Her Voice: African American Women Journalists Who Changed History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.
Strother, T. Ella. "The Black Image in the Chicago Defender, 1905-1975." Journalism History 4:4 (1977-78): 137-141, 156.
Suggs, Henry L., ed. The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Suggs, Henry, L. ed. The Black Press in the South, 1865-1983. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Sullins, William S., and Paul Parsons. "Roscoe Dunjee: Crusading Editor of Oklahoma's Black Dispatch, 1915-1955." Journalism Quarterly 69 (1992):204-13.
Taylor, David V. "John Quincy Adams: St. Paul Editor and Black Leader." Minnesota History 43:8 (1973): 282-296.
Teel, Leonard Ray. "W.A. Scott and the Atlanta World." American Journalism 6:3 (1989): 158-78.
Teel, Leonard Ray. "The African-American Press and the Campaign for a Federal Antilynching Law, 1933-34." American Journalism 8:2-3 (1991): 84-107.
Teel, Leonard Ray. "The Jazz Rage: Carter G. Woodson's Culture War in the African-American Press." American Journalism 11:4 (1994): 348-58.
Teresa, Carrie. “We Needed a Booker T. Washington…and Certainly a Jack Johnson: The Black Press, Johnson, and the Issue of Representation, 1909-1915.” American Journalism 32:1 (Winter 2015): 23-40.
Thompson, Julius E. Percy Greene and the Jackson Advocate: The Life and Times of a Radical Conservative Black Newspaperman, 1897-1977. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994.
Thornbrough, Emma Lou. "American Negro Newspapers, 1880-1914." Business History Review 40:4 (Winter 1965): 457-490
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