Early 20th Century Journalism [index]

Abel, Richard.  Menus for Movieland: Newspapers and the Emergence of American Film Culture.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015.

Abrams, Douglas Carl.  Selling the Old Time Religion: American Fundamentalists and Mass Culture, 1920-1940.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001.

Abramson, Phyllis, Leslie.  Sob Sister Journalism.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Adams, Edward E.  "Collusion and Price Fixing in the American Newspaper Industry: Market Preservation Trends, 1890-1910."  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 79:2 (Summer 2002): 416-426.

Allen, Frederick Lewis.  Only Yesterday.  New York: Harper and Row, 1931.

Alpers, Benjamin L.  Dictators, Democracy, and American Public Culture: Envisioning the Totalitarian Enemy, 1920s–1950s. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Amana, Harry. “The Noose and the Anti-Lynch Campaign.” American Journalism 17, no. 4 (2000): 53–54.

American Society of Newspaper Editors.  Problems in Journalism.  Washington DC: ASNE, 1923-1930.

Ames, William E., and Roger A. Simpson.  Unionism or Hearst: The Seattle Post Intelligencer Strike of 1936.  Seattle: Pacific Northwest Labor History Association, 1978.

Atkins, Joseph B.  Covering for the Bosses: Labor and the Southern Press.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008.

Auerbach, Jonathan.  Propaganda, Progressivism, and American Public Opinion.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015.

Baldwin, Neil.  The Mass Production of Hate: Henry Ford and the Jews.  New York: Public Affairs, 2001.

Barrett, James W.  The World, the Flesh, and Messrs Pulitzer.  New York: Vanguard, 1931.

Baughman, James L. Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media.  Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987.

Bauman, John F., and Thomas H. Coode.  In the Eye of the Great Depression: New Deal Reporters and the Agony of the American People.  Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1988.

Baylen, J. O. “An Anglo-American Press Conflict: The Titanic Disaster.” American Journalism  7, no. 3 (1990): 144–47.

Beasley, Maurine H. Eleanor Roosevelt and the Media: A Public Quest for Fulfillment. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Bickel, Karl.  New Empires: The Newspaper and the Radio.  Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1930.

Blanchard, Margaret A.  “Freedom of the Press and the Newspaper Code, June 1933-February 1934.”  Journalism Quarterly 54 (Spring 1977): 40-49.

Bent, Silas. Ballyhoo: The Voice of the Press.  New York: Boni & Liveright, 1927.

Bent, Silas. Strange Bedfellows: A Review of Politics, Personalities, and the Press.  New York: Liveright, 1928.

Bessie, Simon M. Jazz Journalism: The Story of the Tabloid Newspapers.  New York: Dutton, 1938.

Best, Gary Dean. The Critical Press and the New Deal: The Press Versus Presidential Power, 1933-1938.   Westport, Conn.: Prager, 1993.

Bickel, Karl A.  News Empires.  Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1930.

Blair, John L.  "Coolidge the Image Maker: The President and the Press, 1923-1929."  The New England Quarterly 46:4 (December 1973): 499-522.

Bleyer, Willard G., ed.  The Profession of Journalism.  Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1918.

Blum, D. Steven. Walter Lippmann: Cosmopolitan in the Century of Total War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984.

Boylan, James, edThe 'World' and the Twenties: The Golden Years of New York's Legendary Newspaper.  New York: Dial Press, 1973.

Bradshaw, Katherine A.  “America Speaks:’ George Gallup’s First Syndicated Public Opinion Poll.”  Journalism History 31:4 (Winter 2006): 198-205.

Brazil, John R.  "Murder Trials, Murder, and Twenties America."  American Quarterly 33:2 (1981): 163-84.

Brinkley, Alan.  Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression.  New York: Knopf, 1982.

Brucker, Herbert.  The Changing American Newspaper.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1937.

Burt, Elizabeth V.  "Conflict of Interests: Covering Reform in the Wisconsin Press, 1910-1920." Journalism History 26:3 (Autumn 2000): 95-107.

Burt, Elizabeth V.  "Working Women and the Triangle Fire: Press Coverage of a Tragedy."  Journalism History 30:4 (Winter 2005): 189-199.

Burt, Elizabeth V. “Shocking Atrocities in Colorado: Newspapers’ Responses to the Ludlow Massacre.” American Journalism 28 (Summer 2011): 61–83.

Campbell, W. Joseph. Yellow Journalism: Puncturing the Myths, Defining the Legacies.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.

Cassara, Catherine.  “To the Edge of America: U.S. Newspaper Coverage of the 1939 Voyage of Jewish Refugees Aboard the MS St. Louis.”  Journalism History 42:2 (Winter 2017): 225-238.

Caudill, Charles E.  "The Evolution of an Idea: Darwin in the American Press, 1860-1925." Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1986.

Caudill, Charles E.  "The Roots of Bias: An Empiricist Press and Coverage of the Scopes Trial."  Journalism Monographs 114 (July 1989).

Carew, Michael G.  "The Interaction Among National Newmagazines and the Formulation of Foreign and Defense Policy in the Roosevelt Administration, 1939-1941." PhD dissertation, New York University, 2002.

Carlebach, Michael L.  American Photojournalism Comes of Age. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.

Carlisle, Rodney P.  "The Foreign Policy Views of An Isolationist Press Lord: W.R. Hearst and the International Crisis, 1936-41." Journal of Contemporary History 9:3 (July 1974): 217-227.

Carlisle, Rodney P.  Hearst and the New Deal: The Progressive as Reactionary. New York: Garland, 1979.

Casey, Robert J.  News Reel.  Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1932.

Chesler, Ellen. Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America. New York: Simon & Schuster,1992.

Chester, Giraud.  "The Press-Radio War, 1933-1935."  Public Opinion Quarterly 13 (Summer 1949): 252-264.

Chotkowski LaFollette, Marcel.  Reframing Scopes: Journalists, Scientists, and the Lost Photographs from the Trial of the Century.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Churchill, Allen.  Park Row, A Vivid Recreation of Turn of Century Newspaper Days.  New York: Reinhart, 1958.

Commander, Lydia K.  "The Significance of Yellow Journalism."  Arena 34 (August 1905).

Cooper, Anne M.  "Suffrage as News: Ten Dailies' Coverage of the 19th Amendment." American Journalism 1 (Summer 1983): 73.

Covert, Catherine L. and John D. Stevens, eds., Mass Media Between the Wars: Perceptions of Cultural Tensions. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1984.*

Cox Bennion, Sherilyn.  “Reform Agitation in the American Periodical Press, 1920-29.”  Journalism Quarterly 48 (Winter 1971): 652-659.

Crowl, Thomas.  Murder of a Journalist: The True Story of the Death of Donald Ring Mellett. Kent: Kent State University Press, 2009.  (Canton (OH) Daily News, 1920s)

Daniel, Douglas K.  "Ohio Newspapers and the 'Whispering Campaign' of the 1920 Presidential Election."  Journalism History 27:4 ( ): 156-164.

Danky, James P. and Wayne Wiegand, eds., Print Culture in a Diverse America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.*

Delman, Marty.  “The Day they Blew up the LA Times.”  Media History Digest 3:2 (Summer 1983): 36-47.

Dennis, Paul M. “Press Coverage of the New Psychology by the New York Times during the Progressive Era.” History of Psychology 14 (May 2011) 113–36.

Desmond, Robert W.  Windows on the World: The Information Process in a Changing World.  Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1980.

Drake, Robert G.  "Manipulating the News: The U.S. Press and the Holocaust, 1933-1945."  PhD dissertation, State University of New York-Albany, 2003.

Edwards, Jerome E.  The Foreign Policy of Col. McCormick’s Tribune, 1929-1941. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1971.

Ethridge, Mark.  “The South’s New Industrialism and the Press.” Annals of Political and Social Science 153 (January 1931): 251-256.

Evansen, Bruce J.  "Journalism's Struggle Over Ethics and Professionalism During America's Jazz Age."  Journalism History 16:3 (Summer 1988): 54-63.

Evensen, Bruce J.  When Dempsey Fought Tunney: Heroes, Hokum, and Storytelling in the Jazz Age.  Knoxville: University of Kentucky Press, 1996.

Ferré, John. “Sunday Newspaper and the Decline of Protestant Authority in the United States.” American Journalism 10, no. 1–2 (1993): 7–23.

Fetner, Gerald L. “The Washington Correspondent in the Progressive Era: The New York Times’ Charles Willis Thompson.” American Journalism 28 (Spring 2011): 23–47.

Fetner, Gerald L.  “Political Editor and Public Man in the Time of Roosevelt and Wilson: The New York World’s Frank I. Cobb.”  American Journalism 32:2 (Spring 2015): 161-183.

Fetner, Gerald L.  “Modern Foreign Correspondents After World War I: The New York Evening Post’s David Lawrence and Simeon Strunsky.”  American Journalism 34:3 (2017): 313-332.

Flint, L.N.  The Editorial.  New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1920.

Flint, Leon Nelson. The Conscience of the Newspaper: A Case Book in the Principles and Problems of Journalism. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1925.

Foust, James.  "Mass Produced Reform: Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent."  American Journalism 14 (1997): 411-424.

Fox, Craig. “‘Give This Copy of the Kourier Magazine to Your Friend. You Will Help Him. You Will also Help Society’: 1920s KKK Print, Propaganda, and Publicity,” in Modern Print Activism in the United States, ed. Rachel Schreiber. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.

Fry, John J.  "Reading Reform and Rural Change: The Midwestern Farm Press, 1895-1920."  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 2002.

Fulwider, Chad R.  German Propaganda and U.S. Neutrality in World War I.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2015.

Gabler, Neal. Winchell: Gossip, Power, and the Culture of Celebrity. New York: Knopf, 1994.

Garcia, Cesar.  “Walter Lippmann and George Santayanna: A Shared Vision of Society and Public Opinion.”  Journal of American Culture 29:2 (June 2006): 183-190.

Garza, Melita M.  “Framing Mexicans in Great Depression Editorials: Alien Riff-Raff to Heroes.”   American Journalism 34:1 (Winter 2017): 26-48.

Glende, Philip M.  “We Used Every Effort to be Impartial: The Complicated Response of Newspaper Publishers to Unions.”  American Journalism 29:2 (Spring 2012): 37-65.


Glende, Philip M.  “Labor Makes the News: Newspapers, Journalism, and Organized Labor, 1933-1955.”  Enterprise & Society 13:1 (January 2012): 39-52.

Goldberg, Michael J.  “Law, Labor, and the Mainstream Press: Labor Day Commentaries on Labor and Employment Law, 1882-1935.”  Labor Lawyer 15 (Summer 1999): 93-149.

Good, Howard.  Acquainted With the Night: The Image of Journalists in American Fiction, 1890-1930. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1986.

Gorbach, Julien.  “The Journalist and the Gangster: A Devil’s Bargain, Chicago Style.” Journalism History 41:1 (Spring 2015): 39-50.

Gordon, Lynn D.  "Why Dorothy Thompson Lost Her Job: Political Columnists and the Press Wars of the 1930s and 1940s."  History of Education Quarterly 34:3 (Autumn 1994): 281-303.

Gottlieb, Agnes H.  Women Journalists and the Municipal Housekeeping Movement, 1868-1914.  Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001.

Gray, Lee A., “The Forgotten Man: The Rhetorical Construction of Class and Classlessness in Depression Era Media” (PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 2003).

Green, Martin.  "The American Spectator: A Literary Newspaper and the Cultural Politics of the Early 1930s."  Biblion 7 (Fall 1998): 36-55.

Green, Norma, Steve Lacy, and Jean Folkerts.  "Chicago Journalists at the Turn of the Century: Bohemians All?"  Journalism Quarterly 66 (1989): 813-21.

Griffith, Sally F. Home Town News: William Allen White and the Emporia Gazette. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Hamm, Bradley J. “Redefining Racism: Newspaper Justification for the 1924 Exclusion of Japanese Immigrants.” American Journalism 16, no. 3 (1999): 53–69.

Hammargren, Russell J.  “The Origin of the Press-Radio Conflict.”  Journalism Quarterly 13 (March 1936): 91-93.

Hanson, Elisha. “Official Propaganda and the New Deal,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 179, (May 1935): 176-186.

Hardt, Hanno. “Constructing History: Artists, Urban Culture and the Image of Newspapers in 1930s America.” American Journalism 15, no. 3 (1998): 41–60.

Hayden, Joseph R.  "Public Ambassadors: The American Press and Diplomacy, 1918-1919."  PhD dissertation, University of Indiana, 2002.

Heineman, Kenneth.  "Media Coverage of the Dies Committee on Un-American Activities, 1938-1940." Historian 55 (Autumn 1992): 37-52.

Herbst, Susan.  "Assessing Public Opinion in the 1930s-1940s: Retrospective Views of Journalists." Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990): 943-49.

Herring, E. Pendleton. “Official Publicity under the New Deal.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 179 (May 1935): 167-175.

Hobson, Fred C., Jr.  Serpent in Eden: H.L. Menken and the South.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1974.

Holt, Hamilton.  Commercialism and Journalism.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1909.

Howard, Trustin. Winchell and Runyon: The True Untold Story. Lanham, MD: Hamilton Books, 2010.

Hudson, Robert V.  "Will Irwin's Crusade for the League of Nations."  Journalism History 2:3 (Autumn 1975): 84-85, 97.

Hughes, Helen M.  News and the Human Interest Story.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1940.

Humphries, David T.  Different Dispatches: Journalism in American Modernist Prose.  New York: Routledge, 2006.

Hutchison, Phillip J., “Media, Motives, and White Hopes: The News Media’s Construction of the Era of Jack Johnson, 1908–1915.”  PhD dissertation, University of Utah, 2005.

Hutchison, Phillip J.  “Journalism and the Perfect Heat Wave: Assessing the Reportage of North America’s Worst Heat Wave, July-August 1936.”  American Journalism 25:1 (Winter 2008): 31-54.

Ickes, Harold.  America's House of Lords: An Inquiry into Freedom of the Press.  New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1939.

Ickes, Harold L., ed. Freedom of the Press Today: a Clinical Examination by 28 Specialists. New York: Vanguard Press, 1941.

Irwin, Lew, and Dwight Williams.  Deadly Times: The Bombing of the Los Angeles Times.  San Francisco: MacAdams Case, 2006.

“Is an Honest and Sane Newspaper Press Possible?”  American Journal of Sociology 15:3 (November 1909): 321-334.

Jackaway, Gwenyth L.  Media at War: Radio's Challenge to the Newspapers, 1924-1939.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Jeurgens, George.  News from the White House: The Presidential-Press Relationship in the Progressive Era.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Johnson, Thomas J., and Wayne Wanta.  “Exploring FDR’s Relationship with the Press: A Historical Agenda-Setting Study.”  Political Communication 12 (1995): 157-172.

Jones, Robert W.  The Editorial Page.  New York: Crowell, 1930.

Kielbowicz, Richard B.  “The Limits of the Press as an Agent of Reform: Minneapolis, 1900-1905.”  Journalism Quarterly 59 (Spring 1982): 21-27.

Kielbowicz, Richard B.  "Postal Subsidies for the Press and the Business of Mass Culture, 1880-1920." Business History Review 64 (1990).

Kirkpatrick, Bill, “Localism in American Media, 1920–1934” (PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2006).

Kneebone, John T.  Southern Liberal Journalists and the Issue of Race, 1920-1944.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Knudson, Jerry W.  "The Ultimate Weapon: Propaganda and the Spanish Civil War."  Journalism History 15:4 (Winter 1988): 102-111.

Kreiner, Kevin A.  "The Age of Supermen: Fascism, Democracy, and the Perception of the Heroic in the Mass Media, 1914-1945."  PhD dissertation, University of Dallas, 2003.

Krome, Frederic.  “From Liberal Philosophy to Conservative Ideology: Walter Lippmann’s Opposition to the New Deal.” Journal of American Culture 10:1 (Spring 1987): 57-64.

Kurth, Peter.  American Cassandra: The Life of Dorothy Thompson.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1990.

Lacy, Stephen.  "The Effect of the Growth of Radio on Newspaper Competition, 1929-1948."  Journalism Quarterly 64 (Winter 1987): 775-781.

Lakey, Thomas A.  The Morals of Newspapermaking.  Notre Dame: University Press, 1924.

Lawrence, David.  “Reporting the Political News at Washington.”  American Political Science Review 22:4 (November 1928): 893-902.

Lawson, Linda. Truth in Publishing: Federal Regulation of the Press’ Business Practices, 1880-1920. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

Leab, Daniel J.  A Union of Individuals: The Formation of the American Newspaper Guild, 1933-1936. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

Liebovich, Louis W.  Bylines of Despair: Herbert Hoover, the Great Depression, and the U.S. News Media. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994.

Lippmann, Walter. Liberty and the News. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. Originally published in 1920.

Lippmann, Walter. Public Opinion. New York: The Free Press, 1922.

Lipstadt, Deborah E.  Beyond Belief:  The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust. New York: Free Press, 1986.

Lott, George E.  "The Press-Radio War of the 1930s."  Journal of Broadcasting 14 (Summer 1970): 275-286.

Lowitt, Richard, and Maurine Beasley.  One Third of the Nation: Lorena Hickok's Reports on the Great Depression.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983.

Lucarelli, Susan.  "The Newspaper Industry's Campaign against Spacegrabbers, 1917-1921."  Journalism Quarterly 70 (1993): 883-92.

Lumsden, Linda J.  "Beauty and the Beasts: The Significance of Press Coverage of the 1913 National Suffrage Parade."  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 77:3 (Autumn 2000): 593-611.

Lumsen, Linda J.  “The New York Daily Call: Challenges of Sustaining a Socialist Identity in the Daily Newspaper Market, 1908-1923.” Journalism History 39:4 (Winter 2014): 219-230.

MacDougal, Curtis.  Interpretive Reporting.  New York: MacMillan, 1938.

MacNeil, Neil.  Without Fear or Favor.  New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1940.

McCamy, James L.  Federal Publicity: Its Practice in Federal Administration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939.

McGerr, Michael E.  The Decline of Popular Politics: The American North, 1865-1928.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.  See especially chapter 5, "The Press Transformed."

Marcellus, Jane.  “These Working Wives: Representation of the ‘Two Job’ Woman Between the World Wars.”  American Journalism 23:3 (Summer 2006): 53-78.

Marks, Patricia.  Bicycles, Bangs, and Bloomers: The New Woman in the Popular Press.  Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1990.

Marzolf, Marion. Civilizing Voices: American Press Criticism, 1880-1950. New York: Longman, 1991.

Monk, Craig.  “The Wight of Forty-Four Pounds: Commercial Publishing Houses and transition Magazine in the 1930s.”  American Periodicals 25: 1 (2015): 80-93.

Morath, Max. "Translating Mr. Dooley: A New Examination of the Journalism of Finley Peter Dunne."  Journal of American Culture 27:2 (June 2004): 147-156.

Murray, George.  Madhouse on Madison Street.  Chicago: Follett, 1965.  (Chicago American)

Mugridge, Ian.  The View from Xanadu: William Randolph Hearst and American Foreign Policy.  Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995.

Nakamura, Kelli Y. “‘Violence and Press Incendiarism’: Media and Labor Conflicts in the 1909 Strike.” Hawaiian Journal of History 45 (2011): 69–99.

Neville, John F.  Twentieth Century Cause Celebre: Sacco, Vanzetti, and the Press, 1920-1927.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2004.

Ogden, Rollo.  “Journalism and Public Opinion.”  Proceedings of the American Political Science Association 9 (1912): 194-200.

Ogles, Robert M., and Herbert H. Howard.  "Father Coughlin in the Periodical Press, 1931-1942."  Journalism Quarterly 6l (1984): 280-86, 363.

Olasky, Marvin N. “When World Views Collide: Journalists and the Great Monkey Trial.” American Journalism 4 (1987): 133–46.

Packer, Cathy.  “Conglomerate Newspaper Ownership: International Paper Company, 1928-29.”  Journalism Quarterly 60 (Autumn 1983): 480-483.

Park, Robert E.  "The Natural History of the Newspaper."  American Journal of Sociology 28 (November 1923): 273-289.

Park, Tae Jin. “Guiding Public Opinion on the Far Eastern Crisis, 1931–1941: The American State Department and Propaganda on the Sino-Japanese Conflict.” Diplomacy and Statecraft 22:3 (2011): 388–407.

Parks, Perry.  “Summer for the Scientists?  The Scope Trial and the Pedagogy of Journalism.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 92:2 (June 2015): 444-467.

Parmenter, William.  "The News Control Explanation of News Making: The Case of William Randolph Hearst, 1920-1940." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1979.

Patnode, Randall. “Friend, Foe, or Freeloader? Cooperation and Competition between Newspapers and Radio in the Early 1920s.” American Journalism 28 (Winter 2011): 75–95.

Perloff, Richard M.  "The Press and Lynchings of African Americans." Journal of Black Studies 30 (January 2000): 315-330.

Poirer, Suzanne.  Chicago’s War on Syphilis, 1937-1940:  The Times, The Trib, and the Clap Doctor.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Ponce de Leon, Charles L.  Self-Exposure: Human Interest Journalism and the Emergence of Celebrity in America, 1890-1940.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Porwancher, Andrew. “Objectivity’s Prophet: Adolph S. Ochs and the New York Times, 1896–1935.” Journalism History 36 (Winter 2011): 186–195.

Postel, Todd A.  "Masculine Guidance: Boys, Men, and Newspapers 1930-1939."  Enterprise and Society (June 2002): 355-390.

Pressman, Matthew.  “Black and White and Red All Over: Reassessing Newspapers’ Role in the Red Scare of 1919.”  Journalism History 39:1 (Spring 2013): 29-39.

Radder, Norman.  Newspapers in the Community Service.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1926. 

Reilly, Kevin S.  “Dilettantes at the Gate: Fortune Magazine and the Cultural Politics of Business Journalism in the 1930s.”  Business and Economic History 28:2 (Winter 1999): 213-222.

Rodgers, Ronald R.  “The Problems of Journalism: An Annotated Bibliography of Press Criticism in Editor & Publisher, 1901-1923.”  Media History Monographs 9:2 (2006-2007): 1-41.


Rodgers, Ronald R.  “A Strange Absence of News: The Titanic, the Times, Checkbook Journalism, and the Inquiry into the Public’s Right to Know.”  Journalism History 41:1 (Spring 2015): 31-38.

Rondinone, Troy. The Great Industrial War: Framing Class Conflict in the Media, 1865-1950. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

Ross, Charles G.  The Writing of News.  New York: Henry Holt, 1911.

Ruth, David E. Inventing the Public Enemy: The Gangster in American Culture, 1918-1924.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Scharlott, Bradford W.  "The Hoosier Journalist and the Hooded Order: Indiana Press Reaction to the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s."  Journalism History 15:4 (Winter 1988): 122-131.

Schuman, Edwin L.  Practical Journalism:  A Complete Manual of the Best Newspaper Methods.  New York: D. Appleton, 1903.

Seldes, George.  Lords of the Press.  New York: Messner, 1938.

Seyb, Ronald P.  “What Walter Saw: Walter Lippmann, the New York World, and Scientific Advocacy as an Alternative to the News-Opinion Dichotomy.”  Journalism History 41:2 (Summer 2015): 58-72.

Sheehy, Michael.  “Capitalism as a Necessary Evil: How E.W. Scripps Charted a Cautious Course Toward the Left.” American Journalism 28:2 (Spring 2011): 7-21.

Shi, David E.  Facing Facts: Realism in American Thought and Culture, 1850-1920.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Shore, Elliot.  Talkin' Socialism: J.A. Wayland and the Role of the Press in American Radicalism, 1890-1912.  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1988.

Shulman, Stuart W.  "The Progressive Era Farm Press: A Primer on a Neglected Source of Journalism History." Journalism History 25 (Spring 1999): 26-35.

Siddons, Louise.  “The Future of the American Race: Reproducing the Racialized Nation in Print Media, 1925-1940.”  PhD dissertation, Stanford University, 2006.

Simpson, George E. The Negro in the Philadelphia Press. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1936.

Sinclair, Upton.  The Brass Check: A Study of American Journalism.  privately published, 1920.

Sloan, Wm. David. “Historians and the American Press, 1900–1945: Working Profession or Big Business?” American Journalism 3 (1986): 154–6.

Smith, Gene, and Jane Barry Smith, edsThe Police Gazette.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Smith, Reed W.  "Southern Journalists and Lynching: The Statesboro Case Study."  Journalism and Mass Communication Monographs 7:2 (Summer 2005).

Smith, Ron F. “The Klan’s Retribution against an Indiana Editor: A Reconsideration.” Indiana Magazine of History 106 (December 2010): 381–400.

Smythe, Ted Curtis. "The Advertisers' War to Verify Newspaper Circulation, 1870-1914." American Journalism (3) 1986: 167-180.

Sneed, Don.  "Newspapers Call for Swift Justice: A Study of the McKinley Assassination."  Journalism Quarterly 65 (1988): 360-67.

Soderlund, G.  "Covering Urban Vice: The New York Times, 'White Slavery,' and the Construction of Journalistic Knowledge."  Critical Studies in Media Communication 19:4 (December 2002): 438-60.

Soderlund, Gretchen.  Sex Trafficking, Scandal, and the Transformation of Journalism, 1885-1917.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. 

St. John, Burton.  “Journalism’s Counterinsurgency Against ‘Free Space’:  The ANPA Anti-Publicity Bulleting, 1921-26.”  Journalism History 35”2 (Summer 2009): 91-97.

Stamm, Michael. Sound Business: Newspapers, Radio, and the Politics of New Media. Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Startt, James D.  “Colonel Edward M. House and the Journalists.” American Journalism 27 (Summer 2010): 27–58.

Steel, Ronald.  Walter Lippmann and the American Century.   Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.

Stein, Harry H.  “The Oregonian Navigates the Great Depression.”  Oregon Historical Quarterly 114:2 (Summer 2013): 174-203.

Stewart, Kenneth N.  News is What We Make It: A Running Story of the Working Press.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1970.  (reprint of 1943 Houghton-Mifflin edition)

Storrs, Landon R. Y. Civilizing Capitalism: The National Consumer’s League, Women’s Activism, and Labor Standards in the New Deal Era.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Streitmatter, Rodger.  Voices of Revolution: The Dissident Press in America.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Teel, Leonard Ray.  The Public Press, 1900-1945.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2006.

Thornton, Brian. "When a Newspaper was Accused of Killing a President: How Five New York City Newspapers Reacted."  Journalism History 26:3 (Summer 2000): 108-116.

Thorpe, Merle, edThe Coming Newspaper.  New York, 1915.

Umphlett, Wiley Lee.  The Visual Focus of American Media: The Modern Era, 1893-1945.  Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 2004.

Van Every, Edward.  Sins of New York, as "Exposed" by the National Police Gazette.  New York: Stokes, 1930.

Vaughn, Stephen, and Bruce J. Evensen"Democracy's Guardians: Hollywood's Portrait of Reporters, 1930-1945."  Journalism Quarterly 68 (1991): 829-838.

Walker, Stanley B.  City Editor.  New York: Blue Ribbon Books, 1934.

Wallace, Aurora.  Newspapers and the Making of Modern America: A History.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Welky, David.  Everything Was Better in America: Print Culture in the Great Depression.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Willey, Malcolm M., and William Weinfeld.  “The Country Weekly: Trends in Numbers and Distribution, 1900-1930.”  Social Forces 13:1 (October 1934): 51-56.

White, Graham J.  FDR and the Press.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

White, William Allen.  The Autobiography of William Allen White.  New York: Macmillan, 1946.

Winfield, Betty H. FDR and the News Media.   Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Winfield, Betty Houchin, and Janice Hume. “The American Hero and the Evolution of the Human Interest Story.” American Journalism 15, no. 2 (1998): 79–99.

Winfield, Betty Houchin, ed.  Journalism, 1908: Birth of a Profession.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2008.

Witherspoon, E. M.  "Courage of Convictions: The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, the New York Times, and Reform of the Pure Food and Drug Act, 1933-1937."  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 75:4 (Winter 1998): 776-788.

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